Sunday, February 6, 2011

Chapter 7- Distance Learning Tools and the Role of the Internet in Education

ARPAnet- the first internet set up by DOD in 1970s that was used in 30 locations to communicate for worldwide catastrophe such as nuclear attacks

Internet means “between or among networks”

The first web browser was called “Mosaic” in 1993, which caused an explosion of Internet use and other web browsers were set up such as Internet Explorer and Firefox

Links- going to a website through a text or image that has been programmed to the other webpage and by hitting on this link it will take you to another location on the Internet this is an online organizer that allows you to access your bookmarks at any location on any computer

These sites use more than one search engine to locate things

The Internet is full of information that many people cannot be sure whether the information is something they can rely on or not. Figure 7.6 shows a checklist of what to look for on an Internet when you are evaluating the web content

The Internet has no control on who posts web pages. There are three problems because of the lack of control the Internet has:
            -Hazards of offensive or dangerous subject matter or illegal activities
            -Content (Not all the information is reliable or accurate)
            -Design (makes it difficult for people to read)

The two most common problems with using the Internet:
            -Problem 1:Site connection failure
                        -Many issues cause barriers of using the webpage, such as:
                                    -Problems with local or domain server
                                    -URL syntax error (punctuation, spelling error)
                                    -Bad links
                                    -Firewall issues
            -Problem 2: Feature on the site will not work. When there are problems that don’t             allow you to not being see a movie, animation, or sound the problem could be:
                        -Plug-in required (the computer doesn’t have a special program that is                                     needed to use this and may be downloaded and installed into your                                                 computer)
                        -Compatibility errors
                        -Java and other program errors

The problems that educators can have with the Internet are:
            -Accessing sites with inappropriate materials. The easiest way to prevent this             problem is to use firewall software and/or filtering software.
            -Safety and privacy issues for students:
                        -Online predators can be found on the Internet, such as chatrooms.                                     Students should be told not to use their real names, addresses, and phone                                     numbers.
                        -Sales pitches aimed at children many advertisements for children.
            -Fraud on the Internet
                        -The Internet is not always secure and people can be looking for other                                     people’s credit card numbers or other information that they can use.
            -Computer viruses and hacking. The virus destroys your computer and can be             received in two ways:
                        -Email attachment with the virus. When the person opens the email with
                        the virus then it is transferred to their computer.
                        -Downloaded files and programs with viruses. Viruses can be received                                     along with the item that is being downloaded.
            -Copyright and plagiarism issues
                        -Many students find information on the Internet and forget to credit the                                     author.
Two strategies to approach copyright and plagiarism problems:
            -Teach the rules to the students
                        -If the site is copyrighted then request permission from the owner
                        -If the site is not copyrighted then reference the site by the URL and the                                     owner’s name
            -Use the site to check and prevent plagiarism

Asynchronous communcation are messages not left on real time and are not live:           
            -Emails (personal messages to individuals or small groups)
            -Listservs (discussion group with a shared interest that has an ongoing             conversation)
            -Bulletin Boards (used to post messages to the group members to go to visit the             bulletin board)
            -Blogs (This is used and maintained by an individual that is used in a public             forum and the public can write their opinions)

Synchonous are live interactions:
            -Instant messaging

Cyber collaborations
            -MUDs (multiuser dungeons)
            -MOOs (this is a graphic environment where people go to interact at the same             time and interact through typed text and sometimes voice)
            -Avatar Spaces (the most popular avatar space is Second Life)

Distance Learning (DL) this is a place where information can be exchanged between educators and students. This is a new form of education.

Table 7.2 Page 225 “Classification System for Distance Learning Delivery”

-Most abstract, least realistic
            -One-way, postal mail and/or fax
            -Prerecorded audio or video
            -Broadcast radio
            -Audioconferencing telephone systems
            -Broadcast television: microwave or satellite link

-Most realistic, least abstract
            -Web-based course management systems

Types of Distance Learning Activities:
            -Student Research
            -Online classroom materials
            -Web-based lessons
            -Virtual courses and programs

Problem with Distance Learning:
            -Digital Divide issues
            -Development and socialization issues
            -Positive and negative impact on education reform
            -Virtual schooling issues
                        -Curriculum alignment
                        -Teacher certification
                        -Possible negative consequences

The Advantages of Distance Learning:
            -Fast access to information
            -Access to experts that are not available locally
            -Fast communication to group
            -Access to learning materials
            -Access to courses and lessons that are not available locally
Current Research in Distance Learning:
            -Comparison of face-to-face learning with distance learning which is more             effective
            -Course characteristics that affect success (high interaction, support during             course, and minimal technical problems)
            -Characteristics of successful distance learners
            -Characteristics of successful distance educators
            -Research on cost effectiveness of distance learning on the following:

Characteristics that make Distance Courses and Programs more Effective:
            -Well-designed and structured to support learning
                        -Students can take responsibility for their own learning
                        -Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted
                        -Students feel motivated and want to learn
                        -Learning activities match the student learning styles
            -Engaging collaborative activities:
                        -Require participation
                        -Form learning teams
                        -Make the activities interesting for the students
                        -Don’t settle for opinions, should be based on readings and research
                        -Use peer grading
            -An interactive learning community
            -Effective assessment strategies for online courses and programs

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