Monday, February 28, 2011

Self Interest Activity

I found a website ( through an atricle that can be used as as interactive learning for the students. This website has facts that can range from science (planets, animals, weather, physics, etc) to math and money (measurements, money, fractions,etc). I work as a paraprofessional in a kindergarten group and we are now discussing about reptiles. While I was searching through this website, I found some interesting information about chalmeleons. This could be used while we discussed the chameleon in the book called, "A Color of His Own." Other than the information on the chameleon, this website is a better place for older students. This would be more effective for teachers to grab some information on their own time to use in the classroom. It is a waste of time for the students to use their limited class time on this. Overall, I think this site is not one of the best that I have seen.

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Chapter 10- Technology in Foreign and Second Language Instruction

TPACK is used when a teacher views their lesson and sees how technology can enhance the learning opportunity for the students. The teachers also need to know the right pedagogy to help the students’ learning of the content.

Teachers should look at technology not as an “add-on” but as a unified and crucial part of the lessons.

The difference between foreign language and second or additional language is foreign is when a language of study is used mainly in other countries. Second language is when the learner is in an English environment picking up their second language.

ESL has an advantage over FL because they have the opportunity and advantage since the language they are learning is a majority language spoken. For FL teachers have to find places and activities where the students could learn to excel their other language.

Common problems of ESL teaching and learning:
            -Developing academic language and background knowledge
            -Differentiating instructions
            -Integrating the students’ native languages

Common problems of foreign language programs:
            -Authentic materials, authentic perspectives
            -Creating audience and purpose

Translation tools:

It is important for the student to be able to use after taking a language class is the ability and confidence to use the language in a social setting such as an everyday conversation and with a person that speaks the language (i.e. native speaker)

A new approach to help students with their speaking and listening skills is Computer-assisted language learning (CALL)

ESL and FL learners also can use support from technology-based tools for authentic oral language practice, language sub-skill practice, presentations, text production, virtual field, trip immersion experiences, virtual collaborations, and productivity.

Support for Authentic Oral Language Practice and Assessment:
            -Multimedia software and interactive storybooks
            -Learning games on handheld computers
            -Language labs
            -Radio Broadcasts

Table 10.1 is Summary of Technology Integration Strategies for ELL and Foreign Language Instruction

Resource website for teacher presentation tools

To use oral presentation the approaches to presenting can be used with PowerPoint presentation, Keynote software, or home made videos.  This is good for students to learn how to present information effectively.

It does not matter which language the students are acquiring, they should have many opportunities to listen, speak, read, and write using the language.

As students are writing, they should present their paper aloud to the classroom or they could use an audio file on a program (i.e. Audacity)

Field trips can be very enriching for the students, but unfortunately there is not always the funding available for it. Another approach to this problem is virtual field trips. The teacher or student could go to the trip himself or herself and videotape their trip to show to the classroom.

There are also professional videotapes of the fieldtrips on

Chapter 9- Technology in English and Language Arts Instruction

Wicked Problem- the term used for teaching and learning with technology

TPACK is when a teacher uses the knowledge using technology, pedagogy, and content

A teacher might want a student to do a story telling but another approach than writing or typing is using more of a TPACK method such as using digital mediums such as iMovie.

TPACK’s important feature is:
            -“The use of appropriate technology in a particular content area as part of a pedagogical strategy within a given educational context as to develop students’ knowledge of a particular topic or meet an educational objective or student need.”

For a literate person the fundamental skills should be reading, writing, and critically analyzing written texts

Throughout history literacy has changed a lot from a person signing their name, to being able to read and write and understanding the meaning of words, to being “proficient in 21st century skills that are context specific.

Teachers are expected to provide instructions and teach students to be able to locate, critically evaluate, use, and communicate through technology resources.

Students also need to know what hardware they will use, such as computers, camcorders, digital cameras, and webcams

The most common way to input text on a computer is a “QWERTY keyboard”

Some discuss if it should be a prerequisite for students to learn how to type because if they learn another way which is improper it will be difficult for them to change their habits

Sometimes the teacher should let the students be the teacher’s teacher. Students sometimes will be more of an expert on technology.

Today, thanks to technology and the Internet there is no more traditional classroom. There is a worldwide classroom, which allows us to communicate with people around the world.  This can also be beneficial by allowing multicultural in the classroom.

The schools today are more diverse than ever. The classrooms are very rich in culture, but also more complex. This is an advantage for students to socialize with other races, nationalities, and ethnicities. It also creates new challenges for English and language art teachers.

Students learn to improve their writing and language skills as they read more. The teacher’s challenge is to get the students to read more. Students do not like to use their free time to read and fortunately it shows that both students and teachers show more motivation in using “new literacies.” Teachers are using more interactive and visual qualities of software to motivate students with their reading and writing.

The International Reading Association says that some of the rights that students have are:
-Teachers who are skilled in the effective use of technology for teaching and learning
-A literacy curriculum that uses the new literacies of technology in the instructions.
            -Equal Access to technology

Language Skills Development
            -Teaching decoding skills
-Developing other reading skills (students’ fluency in phonics, comprehension, and vocabulary skills):
                        -Software-based and online systems
                        -Reference resources
                        -Electronic devices

Literacy Development:
-Networked literacy projects (use Internet sites to engage students in reading books)
-Activities with interactive storybooks
-Uses of reading management and intervention programs (i.e. Accelerated Reader) 
-Digital storytelling
-Connections to online reading materials to engage students
-Writing in blogs
-Motivating writing with video projects
-Threaded discussions at a distance

The process that should be approached for writing
                        -Electronic outlining
                        -Concept mapping software
            -Revising and Editing
                        -Traditional publishing (paper)
-Electronic publishing (websites, electronic books, multimedia slide shows, and news broadcasts.)

Sunday, February 13, 2011

Chapter 8- Integrating the Internet into the Curriculum

Web-based activities can be really helpful in the learning process in the classroom, but it is really time consuming for those to develop and use and can be difficult to design in a certain way that is a positive impact on the students’ learning. If an online project is what the teacher wants the students to do then they should ask themselves:
            -What is the curriculum-related purpose of the activity?
            -Does the Internet enhance the activity?
            -How will students use online resources (as opposed to just locating them?)
            -Do students have the necessary information analysis/information synthesis skills,             or am I including these in the instruction?
            -Do I have the necessary time and support for the activity?

Harris refers the following three general application categories for “telecollaborations”
            -Interpersonal exchanges
                        -Students communicating to another student or teacher using technology
            -Information collection and analysis
                        -Use information collection that provides information
            -Problem solving
                        -Student based project that uses problem-solving projects

The following are web-based activities that can be used in the classroom
            -Electronic pen pals
            -Electronic mentoring
            -Electronic (virtual) field trips
            -Electronic publishing
            - Group project development
            -Problem-based learning
            -Social action projects

Different sites that have web-based lessons and projects

Harris explains that websites support 6 functions for web-based learning activities for distance learners they are:
            -Project overview, announcement, and application
                        -Used to show existing projects and offers signup location
                        -Tutorial instruction
                        -Offers instruction and information for the topic that is being discussed
            -Information summaries and exchanges
                        -Allows more information to be added by other people that will be shared                                     with others
            -Communication and support
                        -This is a virtual place where students can meet to communicate with                                     each other to support and work together on projects
            -Displays of past and current student work
                        -This is a place to show other students’ work
            -Project development centers
                        - A place where students and others can give ideas to possibly create new                                     distance learning projects

Table 8.4 is a good rubric for evaluating the quality of a web-based lesson. A few things that you should look for in a websites are overall visual appeal, navigation and flow, mechanical aspects, motivational effectiveness or introduction, clarity of process, and quality of resources.

A few years ago it would be difficult or nearly impossible for a person who is uneducated on how to create a web page and website. Today there are programs such as Dreamweaver that generate the codes automatically that make it much easier for people to use.

HTML- is a standard way for the webpage to be formatted and displayed.

Java- is used more for interactive graphic and animation activities on the webpage.

VRML- This is used to develop and display 3-D objects on webpages

PERL- This is used so that the webpage user can insert their comments or answers into active web pages meanwhile they are running on the server.

There are several image formats and this is a way to sort images, some computers require it or certain formats work better with certain programs. You can tell the kind of format the image is in by the suffix of the filename. The file name will have:

Different plug-ins that are needed are:
            -PDF reader
            -Streaming video and audio players
            -Movie players
            -Animation players

The recommended eight steps to developing a website are
  1. Plan and storyboard
  2. Develop pages with text
  3. Insert images and media
  4. Insert links and frames
  5. Insert interactive elements
  6. Test in a browser
  7. Publish the site
  8. Gather comments and revise

The teacher and student and evaluate their own website by seeing it is:
            -Good structure and organization
            -Clear text and/or graphic links
            -Good visual design
            -Easy navigation

Sunday, February 6, 2011

Chapter 7- Distance Learning Tools and the Role of the Internet in Education

ARPAnet- the first internet set up by DOD in 1970s that was used in 30 locations to communicate for worldwide catastrophe such as nuclear attacks

Internet means “between or among networks”

The first web browser was called “Mosaic” in 1993, which caused an explosion of Internet use and other web browsers were set up such as Internet Explorer and Firefox

Links- going to a website through a text or image that has been programmed to the other webpage and by hitting on this link it will take you to another location on the Internet this is an online organizer that allows you to access your bookmarks at any location on any computer

These sites use more than one search engine to locate things

The Internet is full of information that many people cannot be sure whether the information is something they can rely on or not. Figure 7.6 shows a checklist of what to look for on an Internet when you are evaluating the web content

The Internet has no control on who posts web pages. There are three problems because of the lack of control the Internet has:
            -Hazards of offensive or dangerous subject matter or illegal activities
            -Content (Not all the information is reliable or accurate)
            -Design (makes it difficult for people to read)

The two most common problems with using the Internet:
            -Problem 1:Site connection failure
                        -Many issues cause barriers of using the webpage, such as:
                                    -Problems with local or domain server
                                    -URL syntax error (punctuation, spelling error)
                                    -Bad links
                                    -Firewall issues
            -Problem 2: Feature on the site will not work. When there are problems that don’t             allow you to not being see a movie, animation, or sound the problem could be:
                        -Plug-in required (the computer doesn’t have a special program that is                                     needed to use this and may be downloaded and installed into your                                                 computer)
                        -Compatibility errors
                        -Java and other program errors

The problems that educators can have with the Internet are:
            -Accessing sites with inappropriate materials. The easiest way to prevent this             problem is to use firewall software and/or filtering software.
            -Safety and privacy issues for students:
                        -Online predators can be found on the Internet, such as chatrooms.                                     Students should be told not to use their real names, addresses, and phone                                     numbers.
                        -Sales pitches aimed at children many advertisements for children.
            -Fraud on the Internet
                        -The Internet is not always secure and people can be looking for other                                     people’s credit card numbers or other information that they can use.
            -Computer viruses and hacking. The virus destroys your computer and can be             received in two ways:
                        -Email attachment with the virus. When the person opens the email with
                        the virus then it is transferred to their computer.
                        -Downloaded files and programs with viruses. Viruses can be received                                     along with the item that is being downloaded.
            -Copyright and plagiarism issues
                        -Many students find information on the Internet and forget to credit the                                     author.
Two strategies to approach copyright and plagiarism problems:
            -Teach the rules to the students
                        -If the site is copyrighted then request permission from the owner
                        -If the site is not copyrighted then reference the site by the URL and the                                     owner’s name
            -Use the site to check and prevent plagiarism

Asynchronous communcation are messages not left on real time and are not live:           
            -Emails (personal messages to individuals or small groups)
            -Listservs (discussion group with a shared interest that has an ongoing             conversation)
            -Bulletin Boards (used to post messages to the group members to go to visit the             bulletin board)
            -Blogs (This is used and maintained by an individual that is used in a public             forum and the public can write their opinions)

Synchonous are live interactions:
            -Instant messaging

Cyber collaborations
            -MUDs (multiuser dungeons)
            -MOOs (this is a graphic environment where people go to interact at the same             time and interact through typed text and sometimes voice)
            -Avatar Spaces (the most popular avatar space is Second Life)

Distance Learning (DL) this is a place where information can be exchanged between educators and students. This is a new form of education.

Table 7.2 Page 225 “Classification System for Distance Learning Delivery”

-Most abstract, least realistic
            -One-way, postal mail and/or fax
            -Prerecorded audio or video
            -Broadcast radio
            -Audioconferencing telephone systems
            -Broadcast television: microwave or satellite link

-Most realistic, least abstract
            -Web-based course management systems

Types of Distance Learning Activities:
            -Student Research
            -Online classroom materials
            -Web-based lessons
            -Virtual courses and programs

Problem with Distance Learning:
            -Digital Divide issues
            -Development and socialization issues
            -Positive and negative impact on education reform
            -Virtual schooling issues
                        -Curriculum alignment
                        -Teacher certification
                        -Possible negative consequences

The Advantages of Distance Learning:
            -Fast access to information
            -Access to experts that are not available locally
            -Fast communication to group
            -Access to learning materials
            -Access to courses and lessons that are not available locally
Current Research in Distance Learning:
            -Comparison of face-to-face learning with distance learning which is more             effective
            -Course characteristics that affect success (high interaction, support during             course, and minimal technical problems)
            -Characteristics of successful distance learners
            -Characteristics of successful distance educators
            -Research on cost effectiveness of distance learning on the following:

Characteristics that make Distance Courses and Programs more Effective:
            -Well-designed and structured to support learning
                        -Students can take responsibility for their own learning
                        -Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted
                        -Students feel motivated and want to learn
                        -Learning activities match the student learning styles
            -Engaging collaborative activities:
                        -Require participation
                        -Form learning teams
                        -Make the activities interesting for the students
                        -Don’t settle for opinions, should be based on readings and research
                        -Use peer grading
            -An interactive learning community
            -Effective assessment strategies for online courses and programs

Sunday, January 30, 2011

Chapter 6- Teaching with Multimedia and Hypermedia

Multimedia- means “multiple media” or “combination of media” (i.e. videos, photographs, sound, etc.)

Hypermedia- means “linked media” or “interactive media” (i.e. the word apple would get everything related to apples even Garden of Eden.)

For deaf, hard of hearing students

Impact of Hypermedia on education:
            -Increased motivation
            -Flexible learning modes
            -Development on creative and critical thinking skills
            -Improved writing and process skills

Hypertext was a term that was coined by Ted Nelson

(Page 173) When teachers want to select or design a hypermedia and/or multimedia applications for the classroom they should look at these set of principles:

Aesthetic is an important part of a learning process., it enhances curiosity, creativity, and decision-making skills. (Page 174)

The three recent development and trends of hypermedia that are used in education are:
            -Web 2.0: Users as designers
            -Convergence of offline (disc) and online (Internet) development
            -Increasing ease of use (programs such as Adobe Dreamweaver and Photoshop).

Examples of hypermedia products:
            -Interactive books
                        -Interactive storybooks (target: younger students)
                        -Interactive texts (target: older students and adult learners)
            -Instructional software
-Drill and practice
                        -Instructional games
                        -Problem solving
            -Reference materials

(Page 180) Teacher and students use the following types of multimedia/hypermedia tools: presentation software, video production and editing systems, hypermedia development software, virtual environments and immersion tools, and Web 2.0 authoring tools

(Page 181) The sources of multimedia/hypermedia authoring materials are: audio, video, photographs, graphic images, and text.

(Page 183) Figure 6.2 Explains the sequence students should do when they are making their own hypermedia.
1.     Review (existing products)
2.     Research (background on your topic)
3.     Storyboard (each frame/segment)
4.     Develop (frames/segment)
5.     Link (parts together)
6.     Test/Revise (with users)

(Page 185) The best way to assess a student’s work on multimedia/hypermedia is to give the students certain qualities to look at for an effective hypermedia product then encourage student self-assessment, which will lead the student to further exploration and collaboration. Another approach is to let the students work on the project of their peers and give each other feedback.

The presentation software tools were first used in business and industry. The presentation was effective for being able to demonstrate, illustrate, and clarify information. This is the reason that it was used in K-12 and in universities.

In the next 10 years we are likely to see the explosion of video editing and production.

Apple included a free software iMovie to computers and it made a widespread to all kinds of people including consumers and educators. Educators found that it could be used in the classroom for student-created presentations, video lectures, video portfolios, demonstration of procedures, etc.

Virtual Reality (VR)- Computer generated environment that can give life-like simulations based on real settings. (i.e. a game of golf in Wii)

The five types of VR:
-Full immersion systems (Person uses helmet, goggles, etc. to see computer generated environment.)
            -Web-based VR (K-12) (i.e. Secondlife)
            -3-D models (3-D replicas of objects or location)
            -Geospatial technologies and Geographic Information (i.e. Google earth)
            -Quicktime VR (QTVR) (K-12)

As in the Web 2.0 article the six main types of Web 2.0 are: blogs, wikis, podcasts, e-portfolios, social networking communities, and video and photo sharing communities.

Avatar- A 3-D image of yourself in a computer generated world.

The types of multimedia authoring tools are: presentation software, video production and editing systems, hypermedia development software, virtual environments and immersion tools, and Web 2.0 authoring tools. 

Chapter 5- Teaching with Software Tools: Beyond the Basic Programs

The three of the most widely used software:
            -word processing
            -database programs

Computers can enagage, motivate, and extend the way we think, act, and feel

6 general software support tools:
            -Material generators
            -Data Collection and analysis tools
            -Graphic tools
            -Planning and organizing tools
            -Research and reference tools
            -Content-area tools


Smart Draw

Desktop publishing- Uses a combination of software, microcomputer, and printers to let individuals become their own publishers.

(Page 143) Desktop publishing can help students in the classroom:
-Practice in grammar, spellng, and communcation (using communication to apply language skill to make brochures interesting).
            -Methods of reporting reseach findings
            -Opportunities for creative works

Test generator- Teachers inserts questions and the program prepares the test

(Page 145) Advantages of a test generator:
            -Test creation and revision procedures
            -Random generation of questions (helps with “wandering eye” syndrome)
            -Selection of questions based on criteria
-Answer key (helps teachers when the test is generated the correct answer is given to save teacher time.)
-Test item bank

Different generators:
-Test generator
-Online rubric generator
-Worksheet generator
-Puzzle generator
-IEP generator

Cloze means fill-in-the-blank

Graphic document maker- make award certificates and greeting cards
PDF and Forms maker- viewing and sending document as images

(page 147) Data collection and analysis tools include
            -Electronic gradebooks
            -Statistical packages
            -Student information systems
            -Online and computer-based testing systems
            -Student response systems

Tom Snyder’s Graph Master and The Graph Club 2.0

(Page 153) Teachers feel students are more motivated about writing their own stories when they can illustrate them. Teachers also feel pictures make flyers; books, etc look more professional.

Centron’s Lesson Power



Teacher Planet

Computer-assisted design (CAD) more sophisticated graphic production tool that lets more precise drawings such as houses and cars.

Morphing- Is short for metamorphosing, which is an animation technique that makes one image slowly turn into another image.


Students who struggle with reading or writing can use text-to-speech such as StarChild

Reading tools to see student’s reading level and using methods such as cloze

Readability calculation software

Renaissance Learning’s Accelerated Reader